CLIV. In this square are five sorts of Turners Tools, useful in their way of Turning either of soft or hard work, round or hollow, whose names are Gouges in general, but more particular.
The first is termed a Grooving Hook, or a single pointed Grooving Hook, or the Point Grooving Hook; this cuts on the side or flat of a Board a fine hollow circle or swage; these Hooks or Tools have their Teeth of different forms according to the fashion of the groove to be made on the plain of a Board; for sometimes their Teeth are flat edged, sometimes round edged, sometimes a point only, and sometimes two points, or of other forms; all which sorts of Blades are made much stronger than the Gouge or Chissel, and have the sides of their edges more obtuse to make it the stronger; also they are 10 or 12 inches long without the Handle.
The second is called a Gouge; now Gouges do the Office in Turning (as a Fore-Plain in Joynery, and the Jack-Plain in Carpentry) they serve only to take off the Irregularities the Hatchet, or sometimes the Draw Knife leaves after the work is Hewed or drawn pretty near the round; and that it may commodiously do it, the Blade is formed about half round in the edge, and the two extream ends is a little sloped off: They are in their Blades of a long Size, with long Handles (as all other Turning Tools are so long, that the Handles may reach (when they use them) under the Arm-pit of the Workman) that he may have more stay, and steadily manage them. The Blade of the Gouge is of several Sizes both for length and breadth, some as long as the Shank, others shorter, even from an inch to 3, 4, or 5 inches in the length; and from a quarter of an inch to a whole Inch; and sometimes for very large work two inches over: Most Gouges have in them these several parts, as in other Joyners Chissels and Gouges.
- The Basil, is that part as is ground to an edge.
- The Blade, the roundish part above the Basil.
- The Shank, the long Iron Stail.
- The Shoulder, that as the Haft rest upon.
- The Tang, that part as goes into the Haft.
- The Haft, the Wooden handle.
- The Hoop or Brass about the bottom of the Haft.
The third is named a Grooving Hook or Tool; or the Triangular (or three Tooth) Grooving Hook.
The fourth is termed a round edge Grooving Hook.
The fifth is called the three pointed grooving Tool.
→ All these Tools when born in Arms are to have the edge or Basil, or working part erected, because they are so in their proper place; if otherwise, then to be mentioned, either reversed, dejected, &c.
— From Randle Holme’s “The Academy of Armory, or, A Storehouse of Armory and Blazon” Book III, Chapter VIII, Plate 2. Why am I reading this?