CL. Turners have several sorts of Mandrels, and the sizes of them also differ, according to the sizes of the Work; however their Names are, yet their principal fashions are these.
The first and principal is that as lyeth in the Base, which is termed the Broad Flat Mandrel; it is set on the broad side with 3 or 4 Iron pins or pegs, near to the Verge of it flat; these are used to be fastned into the backside of a Board while the other is turning or working upon: Behind the back of this flat (and indeed in all Mandrels) is fitted a long shank or Rowler, for the String to be wound about while the Work is Turning. In the Mandrel are these parts. The Face, or round Flat of the Mandrel. The Rowler or Shank. The Shoulder of the Rowler, to keep the String from slipping off. The Pegs, or Points, or Pikes. B. 3 such in Pale O. the middle having the Pike contrary pointed S. born by the name of Mandrell.
The second is that in the chief, which is termed the Screw Mandrell, the shank or screw is made of Iron having the two ends round, and in the middle between the round ends a square the length of the Rowler, and this square is fitted stiff into a square hole made through the middle of the Rowler that it turn not about. In each flat end of this Shank or Spindle is made a center hole, whereinto the Pikes of the Puppets are pitcht when this Mandrell is used. By this several Screws of diverse Diameters are made; that next the end of the shank is the smallest, which makes a Male screw of the finest Thread; the next a Male screw of a courser Thread; and the third makes a Screw courser than it; so that you may make the shank as long as you will, thereby to make more variety of sizes for screws.
The Sockets or Chocks belonging to the Screw Mandrels, are so many as there are several sizes of screws on the Shank; these hollow Sockets have female screws in them made before the Notch to slip over the male Screw; which being fitted one to another, are pinned with a pin, put through two opposite holes made for that purpose in the Cheeks of the Wooden Sockets that it shake not. The parts of a Socket are these. The Socket or Chock. The Wooden pin. The Stay. The Notch to slip over the Male Screw.
— From Randle Holme’s “The Academy of Armory, or, A Storehouse of Armory and Blazon” Book III, Chapter VIII, Plate 2. Why am I reading this?